Copyright, Licence and Reuse information

Full-text items deposited in White Rose Research Online (WRRO) are subject to copyright. This is indicated by the licence information given in the WRRO repository record for the item. If no other licence is given, all rights are reserved and items may only be used in accordance with national copyright laws. Users may make copies within the limits of fair dealing and/or under the exceptions provided in the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

The publisher, or other rights holders, may allow further reproduction and re-use of the deposited full text. WRRO does not hold the rights to the content it curates, therefore White Rose colleagues cannot grant requests to reuse this content.

Open Access licencing

Much of the content in WRRO is Open Access (OA) content. The most frequently used licences for OA content are Creative Commons (CC) licences. These are the most popular CC licences used for OA research outputs:

Attribution (CC BY)
This licence allows users to use an item in any way, including commercially, as long as they credit the creator of the original work.

Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)
This licence allows users to use an item in any way, as long as they credit the creator of the original work. Their work must be non-commercial.

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
This licence allows users to download and share an item without making any adaptations. They must credit the creator and they can't use the work commercially.

Other CC licences are available on their website:

Where records identify the publisher as the copyright holder, users should verify any specific terms of use on the publisher’s website.

Licence information included in White Rose Research Online is correct to the best of our current knowledge. If you consider content to be in breach of UK law please contact us, including the URL of the record and the reason for your withdrawal request.

Third-party owned content

Items held in WRRO may contain content owned by third parties who have given permission for it to be used in that specific case e.g. images or data tables taken from elsewhere. This content remains the property of its respective owner(s) and may be licensed under its own terms, with a copyright statement to this effect. To reuse this content you would need to obtain permission from the specified rights holder.

White Rose Research Online bears no responsibility for any infringements of third-party copyright.

Harvesting and metadata reuse

Full-text items must not be harvested by robots except transiently for full-text indexing or citation analysis.

Metadata in White Rose Research Online could be subject to copyright, depending on its source. A public domain strand of metadata, shared under the CC0 licence, is available via the RIOXX_CC0 metadata profile of the OAI-PMH interface.