Fixed and random effects models: making an informed choice

Bell, A.J., Fairbrother, M. and Jones, K. (2019) Fixed and random effects models: making an informed choice. Quality & Quantity, 53 (2). pp. 1051-1074. ISSN 0033-5177



Copyright, Publisher and Additional Information: © The Author(s) 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Keywords: multilevel models; fixed effects; random effects; Mundlak; hybrid models; within and between effects.
  • Accepted: 2 August 2018
  • Published (online): 7 August 2018
  • Published: March 2019
Institution: The University of Sheffield
Academic Units: The University of Sheffield > Faculty of Social Sciences (Sheffield)
Depositing User: Symplectic Sheffield
Date Deposited: 03 Aug 2018 09:32
Last Modified: 14 Aug 2020 12:48
Status: Published
Publisher: Springer
Refereed: Yes
Identification Number: