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A Global Hypothesis for Women in Journalism and Mass Communications: The Ratio of Recurrent and Reinforced Residuum

Rush, R.R., Oukrop, C.E. and Sarikakis, K. (2005) A Global Hypothesis for Women in Journalism and Mass Communications: The Ratio of Recurrent and Reinforced Residuum. Gazette, 67 (3). pp. 239-253. ISSN 0016-5492

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Abstract

This paper examines the status of women in communications industries and on university faculties. It specifically tests the Ratio of Recurrent and Reinforced Residuum or R3 hypothesis, as developed by Rush in the early 1980s [Rush, Buck & Ogan,1982]. The R3 hypothesis predicts that the percentage of women in the communications industries and on university faculties will follow the ratio residing around 1/4:3/4 or 1/3:2/3 proportion females to males. This paper presents data from a nationwide U.S. survey and compares them to data from global surveys and United Nations reports. The evidence is overwhelming and shows the relevance and validity of the R3 hypothesis across different socio-economic and cultural contexts. The paper argues that the ratio is the outcome of systemic discrimination that operates at multiple levels. The obstacles to achieving equality in the academy as well as media industries are discussed and suggestions for breaking out of the R3 ratio are included. 2

Item Type: Article
Copyright, Publisher and Additional Information: © 2005 SAGE Publications. This is an author produced electronic version of an article accepted for publication in Gazette.
Academic Units: The University of Leeds > Faculty of Performance, Visual Arts and Communications (Leeds) > Institute of Communication Studies (Leeds)
Depositing User: Sherpa Assistant
Date Deposited: 20 May 2005
Last Modified: 08 Feb 2013 16:47
Published Version: http://gaz.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/67/3/239
Status: Published
Refereed: Yes
Identification Number: 10.1177/0016549205052226
URI: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/464

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