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Waste stabilization ponds: Past, present and future

Mara, D.D. (2009) Waste stabilization ponds: Past, present and future. Desalination and Water Treatment, 4. pp. 85-88.

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The ‘past’ of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) is due to early experience and design codes in the USA and also to two pioneering researchers, Oswald and Marais. The ‘present’ of WSP dates from the mid-to-late 1970s and is characterized by large numbers of full-scale systems in France, Germany and the USA. Research expanded greatly in several universities around the world, and much more is now known about pathogen and nitrogen removal in WSP, design procedures, WSP hydraulics and the benefits of baffling, and facultative pond effluent polishing in aerated and unaerated rock filters. Several design manuals, books and reference works have been published. The ‘future’ of WSP should see many more systems, including wastewater storage and treatment reservoirs, installed in both industrialized and developing countries, with pond/reservoir effluent reuse in aquaculture and agriculture, so making a large contribution to global food production.

Item Type: Article
Copyright, Publisher and Additional Information: © 2009 Mara D.D. Reproduced in accordance with the publisher's self archiving policy.
Keywords: waste stabilization ponds, history, prospectives, design, research
Institution: The University of Leeds
Academic Units: The University of Leeds > Faculty of Engineering (Leeds) > School of Civil Engineering (Leeds)
The University of Leeds > Faculty of Engineering (Leeds) > School of Civil Engineering (Leeds) > Inst for Pathogen Control Engineering (Leeds)
Depositing User: Miss Elizabeth Winning
Date Deposited: 21 May 2009 10:30
Last Modified: 15 Sep 2014 01:36
Published Version: http://www.deswater.com/articoli/359.pdf
Status: Published
Publisher: Desalination Publications
Refereed: Yes
URI: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/8623

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