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Tools for Risk Analysis: Updating the 2006 WHO guidelines

Mara, DD, Sleigh, PA, Hamilton, AJ, Karavarsamis, N and Seidu, R (2010) Tools for Risk Analysis: Updating the 2006 WHO guidelines. In: Drechsel, P, Scott, CA, Raschid-Sally, L, Redwood, M and Bahri, A, (eds.) Wastewater Irrigation and Health: Assessing and Mitigating Risk in Low-Income Countries. Earthscan/IDRC , London , 89 - 100 . ISBN 978-1-84407-795-3


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This chapter reviews developments since the WHO Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater in agriculture were published in 2006. The six main developments are: the recognition that the tolerable additional disease burden may be too stringent for many developing countries; the benefits of focusing on single-event infection risks as a measure of outbreak potential when evaluating risk acceptability; a more rigorous method for estimating annual risks; the availability of dose-response data for norovirus; the use of QMRA to estimate Ascaris infection risks; and a detailed evaluation of pathogen reductions achieved by produce-washing and disinfection. Application of the developments results in more realistic estimates of the pathogen reductions required for the safe use of wastewater in agriculture and consequently permits the use of simpler wastewater treatment processes.

Item Type: Book Section
Copyright, Publisher and Additional Information: © 2010 Earthscan/IDRC. Reproduced with permission from the copyright holder.
Keywords: health, risk, low-income, Wastewater
Institution: The University of Leeds
Academic Units: The University of Leeds > Faculty of Engineering (Leeds) > School of Civil Engineering (Leeds)
Depositing User: Symplectic Publications
Date Deposited: 19 Jan 2012 11:30
Last Modified: 08 Feb 2013 17:36
Published Version: http://www.earthscan.co.uk/
Status: Published
Publisher: Earthscan/IDRC
Related URLs:
URI: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/43668

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