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Waveguide physical modeling of vocal tract acoustics: flexible formant bandwidth control from increased model dimensionality

Mullen, J, Howard, D M and Murphy, D T (2006) Waveguide physical modeling of vocal tract acoustics: flexible formant bandwidth control from increased model dimensionality. IEEE Transactions On Audio Speech And Language Processing. pp. 964-971. ISSN 1558-7916

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Abstract

Digital waveguide physical modeling is often used as an efficient representation of acoustical resonators such as the human vocal tract. Building on the basic one-dimensional (1-D) Kelly-Lochbaum tract model, various speech synthesis techniques demonstrate improvements to the wave scattering mechanisms in order to better approximate wave propagation in the complex vocal system. Some of these techniques are discussed in this paper, with particular reference to an alternative approach in the form of a two-dimensional waveguide mesh model. Emphasis is placed on its ability to produce vowel spectra similar to that which would be present in natural speech, and how it improves upon the 1-D model. Tract area function is accommodated as model width, rather than translated into acoustic impedance, and as such offers extra control as an additional bounding limit to the model. Results show that the two-dimensional (2-D) model introduces approximately linear control over formant bandwidths leading to attainable realistic values across a range of vowels. Similarly, the 2-D model allows for application of theoretical reflection values within the tract, which when applied to the 1-D model result in small formant bandwidths, and, hence, unnatural sounding synthesized vowels.

Item Type: Article
Copyright, Publisher and Additional Information: © Copyright 2006 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.
Keywords: acoustic resonators, acoustic waveguides, speech synthesis, vocal system, SYNTHESIZER, SIMULATION, CORDS
Academic Units: The University of York > Electronics (York)
Depositing User: Sherpa Assistant
Date Deposited: 27 Mar 2008 16:42
Last Modified: 17 Oct 2013 14:19
Published Version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSA.2005.858052
Status: Published
Refereed: Yes
Related URLs:
URI: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/3713

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