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Real-time dynamic articulations in the 2-D waveguide mesh vocal tract model

Mullen, Jack, Howard, David M. and Murphy, Damian T. (2007) Real-time dynamic articulations in the 2-D waveguide mesh vocal tract model. IEEE Transactions On Audio Speech And Language Processing. pp. 577-585. ISSN 1558-7916

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Abstract

Time domain articulatory vocal tract modeling in one-dimensional (1-D) is well established. Previous studies into two-dimensional (2-D) simulation of wave propagation in the vocal tract have shown it to present accurate static vowel synthesis. However, little has been done to demonstrate how such a model might accommodate the dynamic tract shape changes necessary in modeling speech. Two methods of applying the area function to the 2-D digital waveguide mesh vocal tract model are presented here. First, a method based on mapping the cross-sectional area onto the number of waveguides across the mesh, termed a widthwise mapping approach is detailed. Discontinuity problems associated with the dynamic manipulation of the model are highlighted. Second, a new method is examined that uses a static-shaped rectangular mesh with the area function translated into an impedance map which is then applied to each waveguide. Two approaches for constructing such a map are demonstrated; one using a linear impedance increase to model a constriction to the tract and another using a raised cosine function. Recommendations are made towards the use of the cosine method as it allows for a wider central propagational channel. It is also shown that this impedance mapping approach allows for stable dynamic shape changes and also permits a reduction in sampling frequency leading to real-time interaction with the model.

Item Type: Article
Copyright, Publisher and Additional Information: © Copyright 2007 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.
Keywords: acoustic impedance, acoustic resonators, acoustic waveguides, speech synthesis, vocal system, SIMULATION
Academic Units: The University of York > Electronics (York)
Depositing User: Sherpa Assistant
Date Deposited: 27 Mar 2008 15:32
Last Modified: 17 Oct 2013 14:16
Published Version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TASL.2006.876751
Status: Published
Refereed: Yes
Related URLs:
URI: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/3710

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