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Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study

Brealey, Stephen D. (orcid.org/0000-0001-9749-7014), Atwell, Christine, Bryan, Stirling, Coulton, Simon, Cox, Helen, Cross, Ben, Fylan, Fiona, Garratt, Andrew, Gilbert, Fiona J., Gillan, Maureen G. C., Hendry, Maggie, Hood, Kerenza, Houston, Helen, King, David, Morton, Veronica (orcid.org/0000-0003-3783-2030), Orchard, Jo, Robling, Michael, Russell, Ian T., Torgerson, David (orcid.org/0000-0002-1667-4275), Wadsworth, Valerie and Wilkinson, Clare (2007) Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 12. pp. 1-5. ISSN 1471-2288

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Abstract

Background: Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of 5 pound for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods: We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of 5 pound to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the 5 pound incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results: The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% ( 82 of 105) compared with 88.0% ( 389 of 442) for those patients who received the 5 pound payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%). Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response ( adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009) with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial - the extra cost per additional respondent was almost 50 pound. Conclusion: The direct payment of 5 pound significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study.

Item Type: Article
Copyright, Publisher and Additional Information: © 2007 Brealey et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIALS,PRIMARY-CARE
Institution: The University of York
Academic Units: The University of York > Health Sciences (York)
Depositing User: Sherpa Assistant
Date Deposited: 12 Aug 2008 15:23
Last Modified: 24 Jul 2016 00:05
Published Version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-7-12
Status: Published
Refereed: Yes
URI: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/2609

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