Bonsall, P. and Kelly, C. (2005) Road user charging and social exclusion: The impact of congestion charges on at-risk groups. Transport Policy, 12 (5). pp. 406-418. ISSN 0967-070X
The importance of social exclusion in the context of congestion charging is discussed, and the groups most particularly at-risk identified. A new technique, based on generation and investigation of a synthetic population is introduced and used to establish the impacts on at-risk groups of six congestion charging schemes in Leeds. The distribution and severity of impacts are seen to depend crucially on the precise definition of the charge area, the basis of the charges and exemptions provided. Using the new technique, it can be seen how the impact on at-risk groups could be minimized without compromising the overall objectives of congestion charging. Further potential applications of the new technique are outlined.
|Copyright, Publisher and Additional Information:||© 2005 Elsevier. This is an author produced version of a paper published in Transport Policy. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy.|
|Institution:||The University of Leeds|
|Academic Units:||The University of Leeds > Faculty of Environment (Leeds) > Institute for Transport Studies (Leeds)|
|Depositing User:||Adrian May|
|Date Deposited:||03 Aug 2007|
|Last Modified:||16 Sep 2016 15:10|