May, A.D., Kelly, C. and Shepherd, S.P. (2006) The principles of integration in urban transport strategies. Transport Policy, 13 (4). pp. 319-327. ISSN 0967-070XFull text available as:
Available under licence : See the attached licence file.
Integration as a principle in urban transport policy is frequently advocated but rarely defined. We suggest a range of types of integration, and highlight the problems in developing an effective integrated strategy, given the number of variables involved. We argue that integration should be designed to serve agreed objectives of transport policy, rather than being an objective in its own right. We then consider the principles for designing an effective integrated strategy. We define the concept of synergy, which is often advocated as a benefit of integration, and discuss whether it, and other aggregation benefits short of true synergy, are achievable. We then consider the alternative approach of using integration to overcome barriers, an approach which is likely to be in conflict with pursuit of synergy, but more likely to lead to readily implemented strategies. We then review a number of examples where these principles have been applied, and investigate them to assess whether synergy has been demonstrated. Generally we find little evidence of synergy in outcome indicators. We conclude with some more general guidance on approaches to integration.
|Copyright, Publisher and Additional Information:||Copyright © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. This is an author produced version of a paper subsequently published in 'Transport Policy'. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy.|
|Keywords:||Integration, Transport policy, Synergy|
|Institution:||The University of Leeds|
|Academic Units:||The University of Leeds > Faculty of Environment (Leeds) > Institute for Transport Studies (Leeds)|
|Depositing User:||Adrian May|
|Date Deposited:||30 Apr 2007|
|Last Modified:||16 May 2015 23:13|