White Rose University Consortium logo
University of Leeds logo University of Sheffield logo York University logo

The principles of integration in urban transport strategies

May, A.D., Kelly, C. and Shepherd, S.P. (2006) The principles of integration in urban transport strategies. Transport Policy, 13 (4). pp. 319-327. ISSN 0967-070X

Available under licence : See the attached licence file.

Download (435Kb)


Integration as a principle in urban transport policy is frequently advocated but rarely defined. We suggest a range of types of integration, and highlight the problems in developing an effective integrated strategy, given the number of variables involved. We argue that integration should be designed to serve agreed objectives of transport policy, rather than being an objective in its own right. We then consider the principles for designing an effective integrated strategy. We define the concept of synergy, which is often advocated as a benefit of integration, and discuss whether it, and other aggregation benefits short of true synergy, are achievable. We then consider the alternative approach of using integration to overcome barriers, an approach which is likely to be in conflict with pursuit of synergy, but more likely to lead to readily implemented strategies. We then review a number of examples where these principles have been applied, and investigate them to assess whether synergy has been demonstrated. Generally we find little evidence of synergy in outcome indicators. We conclude with some more general guidance on approaches to integration.

Item Type: Article
Copyright, Publisher and Additional Information: Copyright © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. This is an author produced version of a paper subsequently published in 'Transport Policy'. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy.
Keywords: Integration, Transport policy, Synergy
Institution: The University of Leeds
Academic Units: The University of Leeds > Faculty of Environment (Leeds) > Institute for Transport Studies (Leeds)
Depositing User: Adrian May
Date Deposited: 30 Apr 2007
Last Modified: 16 May 2015 23:13
Published Version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.12.005
Status: Published
Publisher: Elsevier Science
Refereed: Yes
Identification Number: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.12.005
Related URLs:
URI: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/2433

Actions (repository staff only: login required)