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A Review of Regenerative Braking Systems

Clegg, S.J. (1996) A Review of Regenerative Braking Systems. Working Paper. Institute of Transport Studies, University of Leeds , Leeds, UK.

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Abstract

When a conventional vehicle applies its brakes, kinetic energy is converted to heat as friction between the brake pads and wheels. This heat is carries away in the airstream and the energy is effectively wasted The total amount of energy lost in this way depends on how often, how hard and for how long the brakes are applied. Regenerative braking refers to a process in which a portion of the kinetic energy of the vehicle is stored by a short term storage system. Energy normally dissipated in the brakes is directed by a power transmission system to the energy store dnring deceleration. That energy is held until required again by the vehicle, whereby it is converted back into kinetic energy and used to accelerate the vehicle. The magnitude of the portion available for energy storage varies according to the type of storage, drive train efficiency, drive cycle and inertia weight. A lorry on the momway could travel 100 miles between stops. This represents little saving even if the efficiency of the system is 100%. City centre driving involves many more braking events representing a much higher energy loss with greater potential savings. With buses, taxis, delivery vans and so on there is even more potential for economy. Since regenerative braking results in an increase in energy output for a given energy input to a vehicle, the efficiency is improved The amount of work done by the engine of the vehicle is reduced, in turn reducing the amount of prime energy required to propel the vehicle. In order for a regenerative braking system to be cost effective the prime energy saved over a specified lifetime must offset the initial cost, size and weight penalties of the system. The energy storage unit must be compact, durable and capable of handling high power levels efficiently, and any auxiliary energy transfer or energy conversion equipment must be efficient, compact and of reasonable cost.

Item Type: Monograph (Working Paper)
Copyright, Publisher and Additional Information: Copyright of the Institute of Transport Studies, University Of Leeds
Institution: The University of Leeds
Academic Units: The University of Leeds > Faculty of Environment (Leeds) > Institute for Transport Studies (Leeds)
Depositing User: Adrian May
Date Deposited: 30 Mar 2007
Last Modified: 21 Jul 2014 17:55
Published Version: http://www.its.leeds.ac.uk/
Status: Published
Publisher: Institute of Transport Studies, University of Leeds
Identification Number: Working Paper 471
URI: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/2118

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