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The clinical and cost effectiveness of pulsatile machine perfusion vs. cold storage of kidneys for transplantation retrieved from heart-beating and non-heart-beating donors

Wight, J., Chilcott, J., Holmes, M. and Brewer, N. (2003) The clinical and cost effectiveness of pulsatile machine perfusion vs. cold storage of kidneys for transplantation retrieved from heart-beating and non-heart-beating donors. Technical Report. Gray Publishing , Tunbridge Wells.

Published Version: http://www.hta.ac.uk/1258



To evaluate the clinical and costeffectiveness of machine perfusion (MP) compared to cold storage (CS), as a means of preserving kidneys prior to transplantation. Transplantation of kidneys from both heart-beating donors (HBDs) and non-heartbeating donors (NHBDs) is considered. Finally to review whether the use of MP can allow valid testing of kidney viability prior to transplantation.

Data sources:

Fifteen electronic bibliographic databases were searched. The reference lists of relevant articles and sponsor submissions were hand searched and various health service research-related resources were consulted via the Internet.

Review methods:

A literature search was undertaken to identify relevant studies and a meta-analysis performed on the studies that had appropriate comparator groups and reported sufficient data. A structured review examined tests of viability of kidneys on MP. Economic modelling was used to determine the cost-effectiveness and cost–utility of MP. Results: The meta-analysis suggested that the use of MP, as compared with CS, is associated with a relative risk of delayed graft function (DGF) of 0.804 (95% confidence limits 0.672 to 0.961). There was no evidence to suggest that this effect is different in kidneys taken from HBDs as opposed to NHBDs. Meta-analysis of 1-year graft survival data showed no significant effect, but the studies, even when aggregated, were severely underpowered with respect to the likely impact on graft survival. The size of effects demonstrated were in line with those predicted by an indirect model of graft survival based on the association of DGF with graft loss. The economic assessment indicated that it is unlikely that in the UK health setting complete cost recovery will be obtained from a reduction in the incidence of DGF. The probability that MP is cheaper and more effective than CS in the long term was estimated at around 80% for NHBD recipients and 50–60% for HBD recipients. Flow characteristics of the perfusate of kidneys undergoing MP may be an indicator of kidney viability, but data were inadequate to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of any test based on this. The concentration of -glutathione-S-transferase (a marker of cell damage) in the perfusate may be the basis of a valid test. A threshold of 2800 mg/100 g gave a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 33% (and hence a likelihood ratio of 1.41).


The baseline analysis indicated that in the long-term MP would be expected to be cheaper and more effective than CS for both HBD and NHBD recipients. A definitive study of the clinical benefit of MP in order to establish its effect on DGF and longer term graft survival would be valuable, together with an economic evaluation of the benefits. While direct evidence relating to improvements in graft survival would be preferable, the small predicted improvement indicates that a very large sample size would be required. In addition to seeking direct evidence of the impact on DGF, research quantifying the impact of DGF on graft survival in this technology is required. Research is also needed to establish whether a valid test (or combination of tests) of kidney viability can be developed.

Item Type: Monograph (Technical Report)
Copyright, Publisher and Additional Information: Copyright: Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003 HTA reports may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and may be included in professional journals provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Violations should be reported to hta@soton.ac.uk Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to HMSO, The Copyright Unit, St Clements House, 2-16 Colegate, Norwich, NR3 1BQ
Keywords: Clinical effectiveness, Cost effectiveness, Pulsatile machine perfusion, Cold storage, Transplant, Transplantation, Heart-beating donor, Non-heart beating donor, Organ preservation, Cryopreservation, Organ procurement methods, Economics, Pulsatile flow, Costs and costs analysis, Cost benefit analysis
Institution: The University of Sheffield
Academic Units: The University of Sheffield > Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health (Sheffield) > School of Health and Related Research (Sheffield)
Depositing User: Diana Papaioannou
Date Deposited: 01 Dec 2006
Last Modified: 09 Aug 2015 04:38
Published Version: http://www.hta.ac.uk/1258
Status: Published
Publisher: Gray Publishing
Identification Number: ISSN 1366-5278
URI: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/1770

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