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Cercarial dermatitis caused by bird schistosomes comprises both immediate and late phase cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions

Kouilová, P., Hogg, K.G., Koláová, L. and Mountford, A.P. (2004) Cercarial dermatitis caused by bird schistosomes comprises both immediate and late phase cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions. Journal of Immunology, 172 (6). pp. 3766-3774. ISSN 0022-1767

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Avian schistosomes are the primary causative agent of cercarial dermatitis in humans, but despite its worldwide occurrence, little is known of the immune mechanism of this disease. Using a murine model, hosts were exposed to primary (1x) and multiple (4x) infections of Trichobilharzia regenti via the pinna. Penetration of larvae into the skin evoked immediate edema, thickening of the exposure site, and an influx of leukocytes, including neutrophils, macrophages, CD4+ lymphocytes, and mast cells. A large proportion of the latter were in the process of degranulating. After 1x infection, inflammation was accompanied by the release of IL-1, IL-6, and IL-12p40. In contrast, in 4x reinfected animals the production of histamine, IL-4, and IL-10 was dramatically elevated within 1 h of infection. Analysis of Ag-stimulated lymphocytes from the skin-draining lymph nodes revealed that cells from 1x infected mice produced a mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine response, including abundant IFN-, whereas cells from 4x reinfected mice were Th2 polarized, dominated by IL-4 and IL-5. Serum Abs confirmed this polarization, with elevated levels of IgG1 and IgE after multiple infections. Infection with radiolabeled cercariae revealed that almost 90% of larvae remained in the skin, and the majority died within 8 days after infection, although parasites were cleared more rapidly in 4x reinfected mice. Our results are the first demonstration that cercarial dermatitis, caused by bird schistosomes, is characterized by an early type I hypersensitivity reaction and a late phase of cutaneous inflammation, both associated with a polarized Th2-type acquired immune response.

Item Type: Article
Institution: The University of York
Academic Units: The University of York > Biology (York)
Depositing User: York RAE Import
Date Deposited: 22 Apr 2009 10:44
Last Modified: 22 Apr 2009 10:44
Published Version: http://www.jimmunol.org/cgi/content/abstract/172/6...
Status: Published
Publisher: American Association of Immunologists
URI: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/6726

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