El-Gomati, M.M. and Wells, T.C.R. (2001) Very-low-energy electron microscopy of doped semiconductors. Applied Physics Letters, 79 (18). 2931-2933.. ISSN 0003-6951
Imaging of As- and B-doped silicon regions has been performed in a scanning electron microscope operated in the cathode lens mode, with incident electron energies (EP) as low as 15 eV. The doped regions of n+ (As, 2.5×1020 cm–3) and p+ (B, 8×1019 cm–3) on n-type silicon (~1015 cm–3) show distinct contrast with electron energies of about 3 keV. The brightest region is n+ followed by p+, then the n-type substrate. The highest contrast for the p+ and n+ type regions is reached at about EP = 300 and 15 eV, respectively. The contrast mechanisms are explained in terms of metal-semiconductor contact assuming an adventitious carbon film at the surface.