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Estimation of norovirus and Ascaris infection risks to urban farmers in developing countries using wastewater for crop irrigation.

Mara, D and Sleigh, A (2010) Estimation of norovirus and Ascaris infection risks to urban farmers in developing countries using wastewater for crop irrigation. Journal of Water and Health, 8 (3). 572 - 576 . ISSN 1477-8920

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Abstract

A quantitative microbial risk analysis-Monte Carlo method was used to estimate norovirus and Ascaris infection risks to urban farmers in developing countries watering their crops with wastewater. For a tolerable additional disease burden of <or=10(-4) DALY loss per person per year (pppy), equivalent to 1 percent of the diarrhoeal disease burden in developing countries, a norovirus reduction of 1-2 log units and an Ascaris egg reduction to 10-100 eggs per litre are required. These are easily achieved by minimal wastewater treatment-for example, a sequential batch-fed three tank/pond system. Hygiene improvement through education and regular deworming are essential complementary inputs to protect the health of urban farmers.

Item Type: Article
Copyright, Publisher and Additional Information: ©IWA Publishing 2010. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy. The definitive peer-reviewed and edited version of this article is published in Journal of Water and Health Volume 8, issue 3, 572-576, 2010, 10.2166/wh.2010.097 and is available at www.iwapublishing.com.
Keywords: Agricultural Workers' Diseases, Ascariasis, Caliciviridae Infections, Developing Countries, Humans, Monte Carlo Method, Norovirus, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Urban Population, Waste Disposal, Fluid, Water, Water Microbiology
Institution: The University of Leeds
Academic Units: The University of Leeds > Faculty of Engineering (Leeds) > School of Civil Engineering (Leeds)
Depositing User: Symplectic Publications
Date Deposited: 17 Nov 2011 15:54
Last Modified: 15 Sep 2014 03:49
Published Version: http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2010.097
Status: Published
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Identification Number: 10.2166/wh.2010.097
URI: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/43433

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